the seventeenth century
aia раіѴ -ш dj*ö аѴіл лх в^ий fvVio ерѵ пк впп pimi :ртп чок» ïtinS ту* ілуч лк в^
л/лртпп ntsw :*апм алчак уч* "рліпз -нрк ару» нау Víw плкі ;шэі к1? опшэз іпртп^
Fig. 86. Long Primer Hebrew no. 619.
Long Printer Hebrew without points No. 619. [We have the Hebrew type previously men¬
tioned as an addition to the stock of the foundry derived from Van Dijck.1] A
specimen of this type is given in fig. 86 ; and of the same face cast as Greot Primer Hebrew
with points No. 635 of our inventory is shown in fig. 85.
тііе vosbts At much the same time as Van Dijck members of the family of Voskens were
¡oundry typefounders in Amsterdam during the second half of the seventeenth century.
Their firm lasted until 1780.2 Printing during the intervening time shows that most
Dutch type came from the Voskens Foundry. It must have had a high reputation
among the printers of that day; yet I cannot give an adequate account of it. The
extent to which writers on printing and printers negleci: typefounding is always
surprising: they seem not to understand that a piece of printing begins with the
making of its materials. I could recite a list of authors full of admiration for the
part played by printers in Holland's 'Golden Age', but with never a word for those
whose skill and taste enabled the printers to win their renown.
One example will be enough to illustrate the point. Willem Jansz. Blaeu and his
son Joan had a typefoundry annexed to their printing office, and their business was
famous at home and abroad. In 1646 Canon Joly, in the train of the Duc de Longue-
ville, came to Amsterdam and visited Blaeu's office. He wrote that it was considered
the finest in Europe and he adds that it had all kinds of type, even for oriental
languages, which was cast on the premises.3 When, after living there twenty-two
years, the German Philipp von Zesen wrote a description of Amsterdam in 1664,
he devoted several paragraphs to Blaeu's workshop, but of the typefoundry he only
says that therein the types for many languages are cast.4
obli ■ rnjn dhî^ тйэа ааУЬаа nim ¡tïik іппУэт
іЬуз Tim~rtn : огѵѵал-ЬаЬ очя-п mm чруо
л*т:іт іт т : i t •-• •■ : ѵ т : • : лт : j- *t I"
viyyo па ¡ілна abyb лат* wrb ina ели :mm
пок m Чруо ¡алі nòna arò пгЪ isyb тіп
л: л т ^ : -» « t -■• : it I м т • т v; v л т : ■
^ілр ілна nbiyb ¡т« іау1? пЬк> i ліла : ntsh лака
l Іт л • : iT'l it- •* : < - т < ¡K) I TT I J V VI IV
W? aiü bat? mm лкт 1 лоап mtätoi :to^ ktuï
ti v v j» т : - :• т:т < • •■ i i ij т i
Fig. 85. Great Primer Hebrew No. 635.
[i] See note 2 on p. 96.  P. J. H. Baudet, Leven en werten van Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1871, p. 32.
 See pp. 116-117.  F. von Zesen, Beschreibung der Stadt Amsterdam, 1664, pp. 215-216.
TYPEFOUNDING AT AMSTERDAM: VOSKENS
A better account of letter-founding would add much of value to the typo¬
graphical history of Holland, and since the house of Voskens has associations with
several of the types in our colleftion, I will give such information as I have about it.
Most of it I owe to the searches of the late Dr. N. de Roever in the records of the
City of Amsterdam.
All I know of the origin of the Voskens typefoundry is that the brothers
Bartholomeus and Reinier Voskens1 entered into partnership by an agreement
dated 21 May 1641 for making punches, matrices, and moulds towards a letter-foun¬
dry which they meant to establish. Soon afterwards Reinier seems to have left the
business. In 1646 Bartholomeus Voskens alone is mentioned as a typefounder. He
must have done a good trade, to judge by the use made by Dutch printers at that
time of types attributable, as the specimens in our possession show, to Voskens.2
(J¿ Bartholomeus was at Hamburg at some time between 1655 and 1667, and there
he issued an undated specimen.3 In it he describes himself as 'Schrift-schneyder
und Giesser' (letter-cutter and founder). He died in the winter of 1669—70, leaving a
son with whom Thomas Marshall treated on behalf of Dr. Fell in search of matrices
for Oxford University in 1670—7z.4 J) An advertisement in the Oprecke Hoerlemse
Courant of 19 December 1673 announced the amalgamation of the foundry of Jacques
Vallet with that of Voskens ; and another of 7 May 1678 says that Voskens had
taken over the management of the foundry of the heirs of Joan Blaeu. By that time
Dirk Voskens, the son of Bartholomeus, was in charge.5
Ж ДО äK ifí Ж Жі ifí htí Ш Ш Ш Ш Ж HÜ ïîï
ж %і ж Ш ж Ш ж ж ж ж Ш ж ж ж M
S^O r»\S S^O Cf*& 2^0 StsS S>2 2<0 £»£> 4
е<7і ер е^ ер ер ер еререререререререр
Fig.87. Ornaments engraved by Christoffel Van Dijck.
[i] Bartholomeus Voskens, sculptor, of Breda-, became a before 1665 and there 'Reinhard Voskens, Schrifft Schneidi
freeman of Amsterdam on 4 June 1638 (Kleerlcooper-Van Stocltum und Giesser' (letter-cutter and founder) issued an undated
p. 893). He was married to Maria Hendricks and had several specimen (List of type-specimens no. 16; Type Specimen Fac-
children, the eldest of whom, Catalina (Catharina or Katarina), similes 1, Sheet no. 7). His business at Frankfurt was carried
was baptized on 20 July 1638 (AGA, N0. 42, p. 90). She mar- on after him by Johann Adolph Schmidt (see p. 133-134).
ried Johannes Adamsz. Koesvelt (see note 2 on p. 115). Her  The specimens in the Enschedé colleftion were issued
younger brother Dirk (and a sister Mary) were baptized on after the death of the son of Bartholomeus, and probably
16 May 1647 (AGA, no. 43, p. 42), Bartholomeus Voskens was after 1700, by which time the foundry had absorbed several
buried at Amsterdam on 18 December 1669. Dirk Voskens, older ones. Nicholas Kis, the Hungarian, who learned to cut
typefounder on the Bloemgracht, married Aaltje Adams, of punches from Dirk Voskens, said that Bartholomeus was a
Amsterdam (application for the banns 31 March 1674), she very skilful cutter of German types (see p. 131). Mori thought
being then 28 years old (AGA, no. 500, p. 151). They had, that Bartholomeus Voskens came under the influence of
among other children, two sons, Bartholomeus, baptized on Philipp von Zesen and had guidance from his on the design
12 June 1678, and Adam, baptized on 27 Oftober 1680 (AGA, of Fraktur and Schwabacher letters (Mori, Vosfcens). The Ro-
N0.107, pp. 269, 340), Dirk Voskens was buried on 28 June man types of both brothers are excellent.
1691, whereas his widow was buried on 20 November 1714.  Reproduced Type Specimen Facsimiles 1, Sheet no. 6.
Reinier Voskens married Elisabeth Willems van V/esterveen.  Hart p. 161-172.
A daughter, Cornelia, was baptized on 2 June 1648 (AGA, No.  The account of the Voskens Foundry is continued
8, p. 163). He was established in Frankfurt am Main some years on p. 115.