xviii Descriptive List of Illustrations.
98. roman letters—From the inscription on a bronze monu¬
ment by Peter Vischer. Nuremberg. 1495.
99. roman alphabet, incised—From inscriptions at S. Croce,
Florence. Early Renaissance.
100. initials—Framed in delicate ornament, penned in red.
101. Italian gothic initials—From achoralé at Monte Casino.
Framed in penwork in colour. 16th century.
102. gothic capitals—16th century.
103. painted flemish. Early 16th century. From a lengthy
inscription round the obviously original gilt frame of a
picture of the last Judgment in the Academy of Bruges,
by Jean, Provost of Mons, who died in 1529. Painted
Flemish. The missing letters are given in outline.
104. gothic capitals—By Albrecht Dürer. Penwork. Early
16th century. (Compare with 105 and no.)
105. German minuscule—Albrecht Dürer. Early 16th century.
(Compare with Italian, no.)
106. Italian initials—Broad penwork of late Gothic character.
Neither so rigid nor so florid as the typical German writing
of the period. 15th and 16th centuries.
107. Italian minuscule—By Vicentino. From the original
Writing Book. The penmanship is florid, but not quite
in the way of German flourish. 1523. (Compare with
108. Italian minuscule—From the original Writing Book, by
Ludovico Vicentino. A good specimen of the so-called
"ribbon letter." When once the carver or engraver
began to consider the broad strokes of his " black letter"
as straps, and to suggest by ever so slight a cut that they
were turned over at the ends (compare 80), it was in¬
evitable that he should arrive eventually at this kind of
thing. Florid indeed, but fanciful. Any form of letter
might be so treated, but the treatment is peculiarly suited
to the black-letter form. 1523.
109. Italian capitals—From the original Writing Book by Lud.
Vicentino. The outline of the letters deviates into inter-
Descriptive List of Illustrations. xix
lacings. But the knotting occupies approximately the
natural thickness of the letter ; and, though the outline
is thus broken, the form of the letter is sufficiently pre¬
served. This splitting of the letter, as it were, into
ribbons in its thickest parts was not uncommon in 16th-
century initials. It is obvious that any form of letter
might be elaborated after this fashion. 1523.
no. Italian gothic capitals—After Ludovico Curione. Pen-
work. 16th century. (Compare with German, 105.)
in. Spanish gothic capitals—From the Writing Book by Juan
Yciar. The forms of the К and Y are unusual. First
half of the 16th century.
112. roman letters cut in marble—Florentine. 15th century.
113. roman alphabet—Engraved by Heinrich Aldegrever. 1530.
114. Elizabethan lettering—From an inscription incised in
wood at North Walsham, Norfolk. (Compare 115—133.)
115. quasi-Elizabethan alphabet—Freely drawn from wood¬
cut initials in various printed books of the period ; but
there is practically no form for which there is not
authority in the old engraved letters. (Compare 44.)
116. Italian gothic minuscule—From the original Writing
Book by Palatino. Straight-lined with elaborately
flourishing extremities. It suggests the engraver. 1546.
117. Italian minuscule—From the original Writing Book by
Vespasiano. These letters are exceedingly well shaped.
Observe the second variety of the letter r. 1556.
118. typically Italian renaissance—"Roman" capitals, by
Serlio. 16th century. (Compare with Roman, 56.)
119. German capitals—By Daniel Hopfer. Renaissance or
" Roman " in character, but not without traces of linger¬
ing Gothic influence. 1549.
120. Italian initials—From the original Writing Book by G. F.
Cresci. This is a fanciful and rather elegant elaboration
of forms common in Gothic writing. The familiar out¬
line is, as it were, ornamentally fretted. 1570. (Compare