xii Descriptive List of Illustrations.
16. saxon illumination (Caroline)—9th century.
17. anglo-saxon engraved forms.
18. anglo-saxon pen-forms—9th century.
19. lombard—From the Baptistery at Florence, incised in marble
and inlaid with cement. 12th century.
20. Italian ms.—Beginning of 13th century. (Compare with
31. lombard writing of about 1250. Freely rendered.
22. capitals—15th century.
23. german gothic minuscule or black letter—Rounded form.
15th or 16th century.
24. German gothic minuscule or black letter— Squarer form.
15th or 16th century.
25. black letter—Squarer form. 15th or 16th century.
26. roman capitals cut in stone —Wetzlar. About 1700.
27. minuscule italics—16th century.
28. roman capitals—From mosaics in the Louvre. The shape
of the letter to some extent determined by the four or three-
29. greek letters cut in bronze—From the Museum at Naples.
The engraver has begun by boring little holes at the ex¬
tremities to prevent his graver from overshooting the line.
This was constantly done by the Greek die-sinkers, with the
result that in the coins the letters have at their extremities
little raised beads of silver. The fact that where, as in the
A, the already engraved grooves, which form the sides of
the letter, are sufficient to stop the cross-stroke they are
allowed to do so, shows clearly enough the object of these
30. roman letters cut in bronze— From tables of the law found
at Rome in 1521, now in the Museum at Naples. The digs
of the chisel are rather wedge-shaped. (Compare with the
cuneiform inscriptions, and with 194.)
31. gothic letters—From the cathedral at Cordova. Cut in
stone. The face of the letters is flat, the ground sunk.
Note the angularity of the forms. 1409. (Compare 82.)
Descriptive List of Illustrations. xiii
32. black letter painted in cobalt upon glazed earthenware—
In the Victoria and Albert Museum. Chiefly Hispano-
moresque dishes of the 15th and 16th centuries. There is a
fantastic flourishing about the lines which tells of the brush.
33. black letter painted in cobalt upon Italian Majolica drug
pots—In the Victoria and Albert Museum. The flourishes
and foliations tell of the brush. 16th century. (Compare 32.)
34. lombardic inscription cut in brass — The background
characteristicallycross-hatched. Nordhausen. 1395. (Com¬
pare 77 and 78.)
35. roman capitals painted on wood—From the drawer fronts
in a chemist's shop, now in the Germanic Museum at
Nuremberg. The use of the brush is partly responsible for
the shape of the letters. 1727. (Compare 36, 38, 39.)
36. roman capitals painted on Italian Majolica — In the
Victoria and Albert Museum. Distinctly brushwork. 1518.
(Compare 35, 38, 39.)
37. gilt letters picked out with a point, perhaps the end of a
brush—Spanish estofado. From a frame in the Victoria
and Albert Museum. The ground has been gilded, the gold
leaf covered with a coat of black paint, out of which the
letters have been scraped whilst the pigment was in
38. roman letters painted on wood—Italian. 15th century.
39. roman letters painted on glazed earthenware—In the
Victoria and Albert Museum. English. 18th century.
(Compare with similar brushwork, 36.)
40. lombardic letters, painted, and showing the influence of
the brush. German.
41. roman letters, executed in copper rivets on a leather
belt. In the Museum at Salzburg.
42. gothic capitals, cut in brass. From the tomb of Mary
of Burgundy, wife of the Emperor Maximilian. Notre
Dame, Bruges, 1495-1502.