U their indchleánt
LiNcrrvfE £i ЫдоЮПЯУ Limited of London
Ml. GsutcE W. Jones o/ tcWon
una/ particularly lo
"Two L'EUTUIIIES OK Tvi-EFOUNDINC"
Л ff("(l«rT o/ íAf С<"'ои Foundry
'Prìntti bj Çfor£r \V. Jone, et Thr Sign of the 'Dolphin
from which hai km attained much of ihr material
uifA in the following fagei
1923, The Linotype Bulletin, XVII,
No. 12, Mergenthaler Linotype Company,
The Linotype Bulletin, a publication for
the clients of this type foundry.
Eine Ausgabe des Bulletins, mit dem
sich die Schriftgießerei Linotype ihren
The Linotype Bulletin, une publication
destinée aux clients de cette fonderie
Josef Albers's "Stencil Type as Hoarding Type" were published in the same
Before the start of World War II, the progressive forces in typography
were resisted, overcome, and suppressed—just like what was happening
in the political arena. Many typographers had to change their style or emi¬
grate. In Germany, archaic design rules were reintroduced and enforced.
In Switzerland, the work of Anton Stankowski earned a great deal of
respect for the "new typography." His work developed further and gained
fame in the 1950s under the name "Swiss typography." The first generation
of this kind of Swiss typographer included Max Bill, Richard P. Lohse,
Max Huber, and Emil Ruder.
In addition to the Swiss designers, the former head of the Bauhaus
typographical studio, Herbert Bayer, worked in the United States with great
success. The link between the strict dogmatism of the sans serif face and
aspects of American design led to an interesting form.
The loss of strict grotesque typography and the innovative work from
the United States, with a highly pictorial development in the use of letters
and text combined with photographs, led to more successful graphic
design. It increasingly became a matter of designing total concepts and
In 1949, Eduard Hoffmann, head of the Haas Type Foundry in München¬
stein, near Basel, was planning a new grotesque typeface. His model was
Schelter Grotesk, the official Bauhaus typeface. Swiss designers at that time
were making increasing use of Berthold's Akzidenz Grotesk, and Swiss typog¬
raphy was becoming known throughout the world. Eduard Hoffmann
knew exactly how the new typeface should look and entrusted the design
to Max Miedinger in Zurich, who was an expert on grotesque typefaces. His
sketches were passed to the Haas Type Foundry's in-house punch-cutting
works for casting in lead. In 1957, the name of this project was New Haas
Grotesque, but Stempel published the new typeface in i960 under the
With the arrival of photosetting, typography and design gained unre¬
stricted freedom of movement. For the first time there was access to the
most diverse typefaces. This change enabled even better visualization of
the content, and words and text images could be set closer together.
In 1973, Günter Gerhard Lange, type director of Berthold and redesigner
of Akzidenz Grotesk, described the introduction of this redesigned font:
"In this work, the basic proportions of the well-loved Akzidenz Grotesk
semi-bold have been used to determine the average length and individual
shapes. Naturally, the family similarities between the individual styles had
to be taken into account, as did the mood and fashion of the times." The
fashion ofthat time included the then brand-new Helvetica by Max
Miedinger, as well as competing new faces like Adrian Frutiger's Univers
and Konrad E Bauer's Folio.
Helvetica was never intended to be a full range of mechanical and hand-
setting faces. When Univers, the highly extended typeface family by Adrian
Frutiger,was successfully launched, Stempel was forced to redesign the
whole range according to the method Frutiger initiated, using numbers for
the different members of the Helvetica family. Helvetica was just what
designers in the early 1970s were looking for. In 1982, Stempel introduced
There is a broad interest in the history of typography today, which I hope
will extend to the future. We are still looking for new opportunities and
"the mood and fashion of the times." The question is, has the ideal typeface
been invented yet? That is for you to decide.
Most striking, I find, is that type designers, with their wonderful eye for
detail, can determine such a great difference in character. There is a world
of difference, for instance, between Caslon (1725) by William Caslon and
Baskerville (1754) by John Baskerville. Or compare Berthold's Akzidenz
Grotesk (1899) with Paul Renner's Futura (1925). The page looks completely
different, and, as a reader, you perceive the message differently, too. The
choice of typography and the application of the graphic designer can trans¬
port you to another world.
A Small Selection of Type Designers with an Eye for Detail
Claude Garamond: Garamond
The French Renaissance Antiqua sees the light of day. Claude Gara¬
mond was born in 1480. He learned his craft very early from his father
and others in the family circle. Garamond claimed he could cut printed
stamps in Cicero size (12 point) at the age of 15. In the first quarter of the 16th
Century, French type cutters and printers were the counterparts of Italian
creators of the Renaissance Antiqua. Aldus Manutius and Francesco Griffo's
Antiqua typefaces came to France, along with those of Pietro Bembo.
Claude Garamond is one of the founding type cutters and casters of
the French Renaissance Antiqua and Italica. It was during his era that
Cees W. de Jong
THE LINOTYPE BULLETIN
the Caslon letter. It was the faee commonly in use uiitilaboul 1800... Franklin
adulimi and recommended Caslon's types, and his own office «a, equipped
with them."* Caslon thus penetrated to the Colonica! an early datc.and is ours
by right of inheritance, if not of origin. Of the American Gisions of today
the best are those which most closely follow the original. Unfortunately the
name in recent years lias been applied to a grcar variety of types,—юте of
them based on later cuttings of the Caslon foundry, others simply non¬
descript or bastard faces—with the result that there are many Casions now
extant which are not Casions at all in the true sense of the temi.
Linotype Typography Caslon Old Face is based directly upon the Hnglish
Cubrí Old Face, derived from the types of William Caslon himself. It pre¬
serves Caslon's many characteristic departures from mathematical precision,
which, while detracting from the "perfection" of design of individual letters,
contribute so largely to the variety and interest of the type when composed
in mass. In this issue of the Bullclm it is shown for the first time in full series,
from ii lo ,16 point, uscal with its related series of borders and ornaments, many
of which are likewise derived from Caslon originals.
1111 j luxa
¡. Ill |í I I It :l I I 1_
ГНК UNMVKRSALITY OF CASLON OLD FACE
W,lk * Biosrafhictl Sote ou William Смііоы I
II' Л ѴОТЯ «mid be taken among Kngli*h- Show any nun » properly dnigncd раке «et in
rcspend to il> lieiuiy, cien (huu|¡h he Ire » lay¬
man knowing nothing uf lype tcihnicalitie».
There it »ornclhing about ÌI that inevitably "gett
TI' Л VOTE could 1-е taken among Engliih-
I ігкакіпб printer» today as ю what type ihey
would chenue first in filling out a tontpoung-
niiim, there it no
ail)' ««her face, it ha» lictomc 'Standard" with
ihc modern print »hop—a type without which
Ihc printer would nut cuntîdcr himself properly
equipped, ll І1 the one type thai t» common, in
uric derm ur another, to all njcnpaMrig-roajnu.
There are types which are unquestionably more
graceful and "elegant" than Cation, type* which
are better adapted—in Ihenry, « 1««—to ihc
Condition! ol printing luday ( yet Caslon remain»
more Widely uied than any of them. It cun-
linue» to hold iti place in Ihc face of all pretent-
Jay competition. Why in the «of What it there
ihoul thi> type, now over two hundred year» old,
!I1.1t give» it it» al muti unlvenal appesii1
Cation— and it tvhould be understood in whal
folloni I hat the rume referí to Casio«'» old ttyle
type» in their pure form, not to the many m¡*-
cellaneout Casions of more recent vintage—¡t,
lint of all, the mud »«•/■' type the prinler hat.
II .an lie employed for a greater variety of |>ur-
|hki than any other. There it practically no
form of printing that cannot he tet, and »et well,
in it. Л modem criik hat said of it thai "if all
other Knglith typet Were luJdcnly Ю disappear
from the face of ihc earth, it could tutccufully
batr alone the burden of modern print."
To ilk utility of Cation iwu factor» contril tute
in • i|".il proportion. 'Ihc lint it the beauty nf
ihc face, anJ ihe iccund Ut Irrihilily. These
•|uilirici are, of couru-, commun lo all toax-ful
type face», but the manner of ihcir comUnaticm
in Cation hat tumcthing about it that nukes a
peculiar appeal to Ihc Anglo-Salon Urate.
Cailun it nut one uf the mulled "urnamen-
lai" type», ІНІІ it it undeniably a lieauiiful type.
hold of you"—»trength, power, dignity, i
est. It has ¡л ¡I wmcthlng of the univcnul
quality of great art —ihc quality thai lift) "
above (he laues anJ fathiont of any pirriud and
make» it permanently alive and vital.
There i» nothing "highbrow" about it, how¬
ever. Il it a common-tense, practical beauty thai
appeals a» ttrongly to the layman as lo the аліи.
Nor ¡s il a beauty that oUrudca iltelf, at i- so
oflen the ca»e with ornamental typct| ІІ dun not
put iltelf forward at the capente of legibility.
1'ur Caslon, alune all el«, was "made tu
read." Its legibility i» ІН outstanding quality.
The eye can follow il for page »fier pige ■"■'"-
out becoming faligucd and wilhuul »«)' icnte uf
memulón)-. It ha» not ihc précité mail.с пи l ici I
regularity of many types of lodai/, nor it it »o
good in the dctign uf individual letters. There
are all manner of variation» in it—»u much to
that cernili letter» slnunl appear ■! lime» Io Ik
wrong fotti— but Ihc variai ion» »re largely de¬
liberate and conlrilnilc lo the intere« »ml read¬
ability of ihe printed page. The Irue let! of »n>
type, apart from ihnsc lypet whk'h »re purely
ornamental — Ihe teil whiih finally de I ermi net
id »ucccis or failure —is ils ІехШІИу allea com
¡HiirJ tu meni and Culoflj lo our Л ligi »-Su on
iJtie», patte» thi» ini heiter than any other. It
itlhis comliination of qualities, whkh hascaiucd
it to turvivc where many type» thai were theo¬
retically "toter" have been forge*««, »«d
which give»il Unlay iticmincnt commercial value.
All (he qualilie» named—utility, beauty, legi-
biliiy—trace luck eventually, »• with »ny »rti»-
lic pntdoction, tu the man behind the work, and
Roman capitals and Carolingian lowercase letters were brought together. In
centralized France, conditions were more favorable for making progress in
typography and letterpress than in Italy or Germany. Claude Garamond
gained real fame and his position as royal type caster after the 1543 Greek
publication Grecs du Roy, which King Francis I, a supporter of letterpress,
engaged him to cut. The first Antiqua that can be confidently dated and
attributed to Garamond was a large typeface, Gros-Roman, which appeared
in an edition of the works of Eusebius and other publications by Robert
Estienne in 1544.
After 1545, title pages show, Garamond was also a publisher, both in
his own right and together with Pierre Gaultier and Jean Barbé. Examples
of a modern Garamond in use today are Jan Tschichold's Sabon and, even
better, Sabon Next by Jean François Porchez.
William Caslon: Caslon
Caslon, a man with a versatile mind. William Caslon was born in
Cradley, Worcestershire, in 1692. At the age of 13, he was apprenticed to an
engraver in London. In 1717, he became a citizen of London, where, the
year before, he had set himself up as an independent engraver. Two years
later, he opened his own type foundry.
It was the bookbinder John Watts who engaged Caslon to design and
cast typefaces for his book covers. One of these books then caught the
eye of William Bowyer, a well-known London printer. The two became
friends, and Bowyer introduced Caslon to other London printers. This was
the start of one of the most successful type foundries in England. Initially,
Caslon was supported financially by Watts, Bowyer, and his son-in-law
James Bettenham, also a printer.
In 1720, his first year of business in the type foundry, he produced a new
typeface for the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge to be
used for a Bible in Arabic. Having finished the Arabic script, he printed a
sample page so that he could sell the new typeface to other printers. On this
sheet was his name, William Caslon, in roman letters designed specially for
the purpose. This new typeface design was the beginning of the popular style
we now know as Caslon Old Style. Following this style, Caslon cut a num¬
ber of non-roman and exotic styles, including Coptic, Armenian, Etruscan,
and Hebrew. Caslon Gothic is his version of Old English, or black letters.
All these typefaces had appeared before Caslon published the first and
extensive catalog for his type foundry in 1734, presenting a total of 38 type¬
faces. Caslon's type foundry moved to the famous Chiswell Street, where
Caslon's son and several generations of the family after him ran the busi¬
ness for more than 120 years. In 1749, King George II made Caslon a justice
of the peace for the county of Middlesex. He retired and died at his country
house in Bethnal Green in 1766, aged 74. His was a success story of an
John Baskerville: Baskerville
A quest for the best result. John Baskerville (1706-1775) started cutting
and casting his own typefaces around 1754. He was influenced by the letter¬
ing of stonemasons, as were other English type designers who developed
faces we regard today as typically English: grotesques and Egyptians, which
appeared elsewhere in the Industrial Revolution. Baskerville had to imagine
what was of great importance for him: how his typefaces would be printed
and what they would look like. Paper, ink, typefaces, and printing machines
therefore all played equally important roles for him.
In 1750, John Baskerville established a paper mill, type foundry, and print¬
ing business. He then came up with the idea of coated paper. After a great
deal of painstaking work, in 1754 he presented his first typeface. In 1758, his
famous edition of Milton's Paradise Lost was produced, a one-man work of
art, or Gesamtkunstwerk, before the term existed. Baskerville also worked as
a printer for the University of Cambridge, where he was promoted director
in 1758. One of his most famous publications is Juvenalis (1757)-
The spacious typefaces Baskerville designed; the open way of typeset¬
ting, increasing the spacing between words and lines; the width on the
page; and the use of coated paper and very black ink gained him renown
throughout Europe. After his death, a large part of Baskerville's typeface
material, the secret ink formula, and the manner of producing coated
paper were sold to the Frenchman Caron de Beaumarchais. Between 1785
and 1789, he printed 70 volumes of Voltaire using the Baskerville letters.
Baskerville would have been very happy with the result.
Giambattista Bodoni: Bodoni
"Plenty of white space and generous line spacing, and don't make
the type size too miserly. Then you will be assured of a product fit for
a king."—Giambattista Bodoni
He has been called the king of printers and the printer of kings.
Bodoni's reputation is based on the Manuale tipografico, a compilation
The Ideal Typeface