THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
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Fig.260. Synopsis of the sorts of Fleischman's Two-line Pearl Music.
only a supremely skilful punchcutter but an exceptionally intelligent man with a
profound grasp of every detail of typography.
In all a set of 226 punches and 240 matrices was made, and to give an idea of the
prodigious difficulty of the undertaking we have set up a synopsis of the sorts that
Fleischman thought necessary (fig. 260). The way that music is set typographically
nowadays has changed in minor respecb; but apart from the excessive compli¬
cation and the multiplicity of characters in the fount1 the system in use today is
essentially that devised by Fleischman. One has only to look at a score set in his
type (fig. 261) to see how nearly it approximates to modern typographical music.
The scope of this book does not permit of my recounting the troubles that
Johannes Enschedé brought upon himself by advertising his music-type in words
that seemed to claim the honour of the invention for himself. I went into that
matter fully in the jubilee book published for my firm in 1893.2 I need only say
that my ancestor defended himself brilliantly and showed that he freely accorded
to Breitkopf the honour that he claimed.3 For his part he was content if it were
conceded that his foundry offered the handsomest typographical music.
 Music-types of the nineteenth century had as many as 48 Dutch Songs which we have entitled Haerlemse Zangen in
a thousand sorts of which more than six hundred were con- imitation of the Odes of Berlin, published in the year 1756
sidered essential. ... We publish them as the first specimen of our industry
 Gedenbchrift pp. 23-29. shewing that we have succeeded in composing and printing
 Besides proving that Izaak and Johannes Enschedé did polyphonic music as accurately and neatly as it is otherwise
not claim the honour of the 'invention' their foreword to the engraved in copperplates. The first inducement to undertake
Haerlemse zangen contains more information which makes it this enterprise and to bring it to perfection was given to us,
worth its while to give a translation here : 'Notice. We offer some 9 or 10 years ago, when a certain letter-cutter in this town
our compatriots and amateurs of noble music the following [J.-F. Rosart at Haarlem], who cut some capitals etc. for our
BEHANDELEN der VIOOL.
De opkUmmende Tujchenflagen worden even aldus gefpeeld
en men heeft het zelfde daarby waarteneemen. By vòorbedd!
Dit is de grond daarvan
De Voorllagen zyn hier uytgefchreeven."
De Verciering met de Tuffcheníla
gen ziet alzo uyt.
Zo moet men het Speelen.
Dit klinkt daaren-
Dat deeze opkUmmende Tuffchenflagen den eenen heelen Toon
opklimmenden Voorilag te hulp komen, weet men uyt §. ю.
Het is zo klaar als den dag, dat een Violinili wel moet wee-
ten te onderícheiden, of, en wat voor eene Verdering de
Componili: reeds uytgezet heeft; en of hy nog eene, of wat
voor eene Verciering hy nog kan aanbrengen; wy zien het zon-
nekiaar in de Exempelen des 19. en 20. Paragraaphs. Want hoe
Hecht zoude het luyden, wanneer de Violinili den van den
Componili reeds opgeíchreevenen en in de Maat verdeelden
yoorjlag nog met eenen afdaalenden langen Voorilag wilde ver-
eeren. Het heet by voorbeeld:
Fig. 261. Two-line Pearl Music, cut by Fleischman in 1758. Resetting of a page of
Leopold Mozart, Grondig ondenújs in het behandeien der viool, Haarlem, Johannes Enschedé, 1766.
foundry, strove to cut and cast a complete music fount with
its notes and characters, and furthermore to print them on
an ordinary printing press. He made a beginning and showed
us a specimen of his device; but there was rather much to
to be bettered. He gave up his attempt and let the matter rest
at the stage of the aforesaid specimen. We have since been
trying to have the abandoned projeft aforesaid carried out by
the skilful hand of Mr. J. M. Fleischman, who cut almost all
our types ; but other types, being of more importance, caused
a delay of some time. In the meantime the Germans did not
rest. At the beginning of the year 1755 Mr. Breitkopf, of
Leipzig, published polyphonic music which was printed on an
ordinary printing press, which device we and all the connois¬
seurs of our métier duly admired. After Mr. Fleischman had
delivered our beautiful script type on Two-line Small Pica he
undertook the work of the music-type, mainly following the
trend from Leipzig, and brought the work which he under¬
took to its present perfeftion after having toiled at it for more
than two years. It was over a year ago that we were able to
begin with the printing of complete polyphonic music, but
other work which coincided prevented us constantly from
doing so. Now then, ..., here are the firstlings of our unre¬
lenting industry, ... We indulge ourselves in the hope that we
may meet with ... approval, the more so, because this device
is less costly, rather easier, and much neater than the ordinary
copperplates ... We must furthermore add that we have de¬
cided to use these new music-types exclusively in our music-
printing department, which we have set up here, and add that
we shall on no account concern ourselves with casting them
for or delivering them to any other printing office, thereby
preventing any music elsewhere engraved in copper at great
cost from being pirated by mercenary and unprincipled trades¬
men by means of our music-type ... Haarlem, 1 December
1760. Izaak and Joh. Enschedé.'