270 Fraktur capitals. Study by the author.
271 Fraktur capitals (reduced) by Hermann
Zapf. From Pen and Graver. Alphabets & Pages
of Calligraphy. New York, 1952.
272 Alt Fraktur (36-point). D. Stempel AG,
Frankfurt/M., Typesetting by Andersen Nexö,
Chancery Cursive and
In Germany chancery cursive of the six¬
teenth century was a variation of fraktur,
enriched by elements of Gothic script.
The stems in x-height were either verti¬
cal or slanted to the left or to the right.
Ligatures could be pointed or have a
variety of arched forms. Many mixed
types developed. The use of pointed
quills and familiarity with engravings
made the lettering of the seventeenth
century ever more precise and delicate.
A constant slant to the right was
adopted, and x-heights shrank in favor of
elongated ascenders and descenders.
These tendencies intensified during the
eighteenth century until the chancery
cursive finally became identical with
Kurrent, the common German hand¬
Kurrent, in the sixteenth century
similar to chancery cursive if somewhat
more fluent, went through similar
changes, until the steel nib, introduced
in the nineteenth century, and the influ¬
ence of English scripts turned it into the
lettering style that was taught in Ger¬
man schools until the beginning of the
273 Chancery script (historic form). From
Wolfgang Fugger's Schreibbüchlein, facsimile
edition, Leipzig, 1958.
274 Type page by Rudo Speman.
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