furies), fractured bâtarde (fifteenth to
sixteenth centuries), and spiked bâtarde
(fifteenth to sixteenth centuries). The
Bohemian bâtarde was of great impor¬
tance for the development of fraktur.
Wonderful examples of Italian bâ¬
tarde are to be found in the books of
Tagliente and Palatino. Italian modifi¬
cations influenced writers from Spain to
the Netherlands. Among the German
bâtardes those from the Upper Rhine
and Franconia deserve special mention.
The earlier shows a relationship to the
French bâtarde; the latter presents a par¬
ticularly mature type, which is the basis
for other German scripts (Figure 244).
To achieve the flowing rhythm so
typical of the bâtarde scripts, practice
the group m-n-u and add one letter after
the other (Figure 245). Study historical
models carefully before you attempt any
variations of your own. Copying is a
useful activity, and it is important to
assimilate a rich supply of historical in¬
formation into one's own repertoire.
246 Bâtarde. Study by the author.
247 Bâtarde capitals. Study by the author.
248 French bâtarde. Study by the author.
249 Bâtarde. Study by the author.
On page 97:
250 Bâtarde. Study by Alfred Kapr.
251 Bâtarde. Study by Alfred Kapr.
252 Bâtarde. Study by Alfred Kapr.
253 Bâtarde. Study by the author.
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