138 Another variation
of sans serif roman with
varied stroke widths.
139 Lowercase sans
serif roman with varied
a stroke in two different movements.
A pleasing rhythm comes with prac¬
tice. For variation choose different
heights, stroke widths, and tools for your
work, but remember that steel nibs are
usually best suited to small letter sizes.
Very impressive larger forms can be
created with reed pens and brushes, the
latter requiring disciplined practice
because the width of the instrument
changes as pressure on it varies.
Lowercase Letters and Numerals
As with capitals, the height of lower¬
case letters is determined by the stroke
width. Use six stroke widths for the x-
height, ten for letters with descenders or
ascenders. Capitals of the same alphabet
are written at a height of eight to nine
stroke widths (Figure 140).
Practice the lowercase letters in the
same sequence that was established for
the sans serif. The key letters that deter¬
mine form and width for all the others
are о and n. The round forms, even
though reminiscent of circles, show
slightly more expansion in the upper
half. If the pen is held in the right
position, the axis will slant diagonally
through the interior form. Start and
finish verticals with serifs (Figure 141).
Make numerals the same size as
uppercase letters and align them on the
guideline or arrange them to create
ascenders and descenders (as in Figure
139), which makes groups of numbers
Figure 143 shows letters with various
errors. You will not be able to transfer
directly to your work with lowercase let¬
ters with serifs all the information that
you have gained from earlier practice.
Changing stroke widths and serifs influ¬
ences the optical appearance of the space
between the letters, and new adjust¬
ments are necessary.
141 Stroke direction for stems.
143 Incorrect forms.
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