EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded
Decimal Interchange) An 8-bit
character code used in comput¬
ing, typically in mainframes.
EBCDIC encodes 256 alpha-
numerics and symbols into
assigned numbers for the pur¬
pose of electronic storage and
communication. See ASCII for
Egyptian A typeface style with
slab or square serifs and nearly
uniform strokes (a low contrast
face). Examples of Egyptian
types include Memphis and
Elevated Cap An oversized
capital letter or versal set on
the same baseline as the first
line in a text.
Em A relative unit of measure
equal to the square of the type
size. Historically, the em is the
width of a typeface's widest
letterform, the capital 'M.' In
contemporary terminology, the
em is defined as the current
point size. For example, 12-
point type will contain an em
with a width of 12 points.
Em Dash The width of an em,
this character is used to indicate
missing content or a break in
Em Space A space equal to the
width of an em, often used for
En A unit of measure equal to
half the width of a typeface's
point size. The en is traditionally
half the width of an em. For
example, 12-point type will
contain an en with a width
of 6 points.
En dash The width of an en,
this character is used to indi¬
cate duration, or in creating
En Space A space equal to the
width of an en, or half an em
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) A
computer document file format
used to exchange PostScript
image information between
EULA (End User License Agreement)
A type of contract between a
software publisher and a
licensed user of said software.
The EULA gives the end-user
permission to use the software,
grants additional rights, imposes
restrictions on use, etc. The
EULA may also contain limited
warranty information, contact
and upgrade details, and other
European System A system to
regulate the measurement of
type, proposed by the Foumier
Press in 1737. In 1775, the Didot
foundry endorsed the point sys¬
tem currently in use in Europe.
In the European system, 1 inch
= 6 ciceros = 72 Didot points
(approx.). For comparison, see
the Anglo American System.
Expanded A typeface with letter-
forms drawn or digitally made
wider without adding to the
Expert Set An expanded set of
characters designed as a com¬
panion to a basic character set,
contained in one or more sepa¬
rate, style-related fonts. Expert
sets may include old style
figures, proportionally drawn
small caps, swashes, ornaments,
alternate characters and many
other features designed to
enhance typographic works.
Extended A typeface with
letterforms that are expanded
horizontally while retaining
their original height.
Extenders The ascenders and
descenders of letterforms.
Eye A synonym for bowl. If a
character is said to have a
large eye, it actually has a large
x-height, while an open eye
signifies a large aperture.
Family The group of all the type
sizes and styles of a typeface;
the complete character set of
a font. The members of a type
family are based on a common
design, but may differ in width,
weight, style and other attributes.
See also typeface.
Finial A flourish or decoration
found at the end of a main
stroke in some typefaces. See
Fleuron A typographical orna¬
ment, usually shaped like a
flower or leaf.
Flourish A stroke added to a
letterform for stylistic purposes.
Flush Left Text that is set flush,
or justified, on the left margin.
Also known as left justified or
Flush Right Text that is set flush,
or justified, on the right margin.
Also known as right justified or
Font A set of characters. In metal
typesetting, a font (or fount)
consisted of an alphabet and
its companion characters in a
given size. In this context, 48
pt. Johnston Underground Bold is
a font. In digital typography, a
font represents the character set
itself, or the digital information
encoding it. In modern termi¬
nology, font, face, and typeface are
often used interchangeably. See
Font Family See family.
Font Metrics See AFM, metrics.
Foundry See type foundry.
Fount Older British spelling of
the term font. Pronunciation is
Fraktur A class of blackletter
Geometric A class of sans serif
influenced by the Bauhaus
movement. Futura and ITC
Bauhaus axe examples of the
Glyph Usually defined as a shape
in a font that represents a char¬
acter code for output onscreen
or paper. The most common
form of a glyph is a letter;
however, the non-alphanumeric
symbols and shapes in a font
are also glyphs.
Gothic See Grotesk.
Grotesk/Grotesque A class of
sans serif. Early designs and
revivals of 19th century designs
are also referred to as Gothic
types. Akzidenz Grotesk and News
Gothic are examples of the
Humanist A class of sans serif
types based on Humanist
roman faces. Examples include
Gill Sans and Optima.
Gutenberg In 1450, Johannes
Gutenberg invented a printing
press and introduced the con¬
cept of movable type to Europe.
In 1455, Gutenberg's Latin
42-line Bible became the first
European book to be produced
using movable metal type.
Hairline The thinnest stroke
used in designing letterforms.
Half-Serif Terminal The
terminal ending of a serif
with one side suppressed. See
Headline Font See display face.
Hints Mathematical instructions
added to digital fonts to
enhance their appearance at
all sizes and on display devices
with differing resolution.
Initial Cap Oversized and often
ornamental, initial caps are
sometimes used at the begin¬
ning of paragraphs or chapters.
Inline A character in which the
inner portions of the main
strokes have been carved out,
while leaving the edges intact.
Castellar and Goudy Handtooled
are examples of inline faces.
Italic First developed in the 15th
century, italics are more cursive
than roman letterforms, and are
usually designed to slant to the
right. The first italic type was
designed by Aldus Manutius in
1501, and was based on the
elegant handwriting styles of
that era. The term italic refers
to this style's Italian origin.
Italicize To set type in an italic
Justified Referring to text or
graphic elements that are
aligned at both the left and
right margins. See also
Kern The part of one letter that
extends into the space of
Kerning The adjustment of white
space between character pairs
to improve appearance and
Keyboard Layout A table used
by a computer operating system
to control the character codes
generated when a key or key
combination is pressed. Also
known as keyboard map or
Keyboard Map See keyboard layout.
Lachrymal Terminal See teardrop
Leading Pronounced led-ding.
The vertical distance from base¬
line to baseline. Named for the
lead spacers used between lines
of text in letterpress printing.
Also called lead.
Left Justified See flush left.
Letterspacing Adjusting the
space between letters in a block
of text. Kerning allows for the
adjustment of space between
particular character pairs;
letterspacing is applied to text
as a whole. Also referred to
License Agreement See EULA.
Ligated A typeface with connec¬
tions between letterforms.
Formal scripts such as Snell
Roundhand and Citadel Script
are examples of ligated designs.
Letter combinations such as 'fi'
and 'st' may also be ligated in
Ligature Two or more letters
connected to create a single
character. Examples include 'fi'
and 'fl/ and diphthongs such
as VE' and 'Œ.' Also known as
Line Spacing See leading.
Lining Figures Numerals of even
height. Also called titling figures;
however, some lining figures
may be small and lighter than
the uppercase in a typeface.
Also called modern figures.
Lowercase Originally called
minuscules, these are the small,
or lowercase, letters of a typeface.
Minuscules were traditionally
stored in the lower section of a
printers typecase, and it eventu-