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111. Some of the first outline or open types, 1833 
The designers of the first outline or open types may possibly have been
influenced by Fournier le jeune' s cutting of decorated and shaded letters.
Ifwe accept the definition given below as being a reasonable description
of a true outline or open type then Fournier himself does not appear to
have cut one.
The earliest designs in this class appear to have begun asjobbing types.
William Thorowgood shows examples of what he calls open types in
his specimen books of 1821,1828 and 1832, but open as a description of
those types is a misnomer: they are without exception shaded versions
of jobbing faces. But on the title-page of the specimen book issued by
Thorowgood in i834appear three examples of jobbing types inoutline
or open form. Vincent Figgins showed outline faces in his specimen
book issued in the previous year.
Nicolette Gray in her Nineteenth Century Ornamented Types and Title
Pages says: 'One hardly notices the introduction of the first outline types
in 1833; for not only are they very light, but also very small.. .The out¬
lines are delicately cut and very fine so that the faces are aethereal'.
The names of the types in this group should be sufficiently descript¬
ive of them: the thick stems of the letters are outlined (i.e. the stems are
open) and not solid as in normal type. But the typefounders and manu¬
facturers of type composing machinery have so thoroughly bedevilled
our typographical nomenclature that the terms open, outline, shaded,