Letterforms defined by pointed, curved
and vertical strokes appear shorter due
to little weight at the top and bottom
measure lines. In these forms, tips,
apexes and curves extend slightly above
top lines, and apexes and curves extend
slightly below baselines to allow these
letters to appear same size as forms that
end flush top and bottom.
The consistent alignment of letters to the staff require certain
optical adjustments to the overall design and stress of each
character. Any character without these subtle refinements is
most likely an imposter and should be treated with suspicion.
The top half of regular capitals and
figures often appears too large if the
form Is divided equally In the horizontal
center. To achieve balance, the horizontal
center is slightly higher, leaving the top
halves slightly narrower than bottom.
Horizontal strokes have a tendency to
appear too thick if they are the same
weight as the vertical strokes In the same
form. In most cases, the horizontal
strokes are slightly thinner than vertical
strokes, in curved and straight letterforms,
In order to achieve a weight balance.
Curved strokes are usually thicker In
the midsection than vertical strokes In
order to achieve an even appearance.
Tight or angled stroke junctions open
slightly to prevent the appearance of
thickening at the joint.
The stroke ends of letterforms with
strong diagonal and vertical strokes
taper slightly to open up counter spaces.
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